6. Measurement and analysis. You won’t get far in SEO unless you know how to measure your results, interpret those results, and use your analysis to make meaningful changes to your approach. The best tool for the job is still Google Analytics, especially if you’re new to the game. Spend some time experimenting with different metrics and reports, and read up on Analytics knowledge base articles. There’s a deep world to dive into.


Whether or not the overall range is divided into 10 equal parts is a matter for debate – Google aren’t saying. But because it is much harder to move up a toolbar point at the higher end than it is at the lower end, many people (including me) believe that the divisions are based on a logarithmic scale, or something very similar, rather than the equal divisions of a linear scale.
Featured Snippet – Search results that appear at the top of the SERPs, just below the ads, are called Featured Snippets. Unlike other results, Featured Snippets highlight a significant portion of the content. That way, users can get the info they’re looking for without even clicking a link. That’s why Featured Snippets are sometimes called Answer Boxes. Marketers like it when their websites land in the Featured Snippet spot because Google users will often click the link to get a more detailed answer beyond what’s provided in the snippet.
There are simple and fast random walk-based distributed algorithms for computing PageRank of nodes in a network.[31] They present a simple algorithm that takes {\displaystyle O(\log n/\epsilon )} rounds with high probability on any graph (directed or undirected), where n is the network size and {\displaystyle \epsilon } is the reset probability ( {\displaystyle 1-\epsilon } is also called as damping factor) used in the PageRank computation. They also present a faster algorithm that takes {\displaystyle O({\sqrt {\log n}}/\epsilon )} rounds in undirected graphs. Both of the above algorithms are scalable, as each node processes and sends only small (polylogarithmic in n, the network size) number of bits per round.
Due to the huge number of items that are available or related to the query there usually are several pages in response to a single search query as the search engine or the user's preferences restrict viewing to a subset of results per page. Each succeeding page will tend to have lower ranking or lower relevancy results. Just like the world of traditional print media and its advertising, this enables competitive pricing for page real estate, but compounded by the dynamics of consumer expectations and intent— unlike static print media where the content and the advertising on every page is the same all of the time for all viewers, despite such hard copy being localized to some degree, usually geographic, like state, metro-area, city, or neighborhoods.
Google has a very large team of search quality raters that evaluate the quality of search results, that gets fed into a machine learning algorithm. Google’s search quality rater guidelines provide plenty of detail and examples of what Google class as high or low quality content and websites, and their emphasis on wanting to reward sites that clearly show their expertise, authority and trust (EAT).

The formula uses a model of a random surfer who gets bored after several clicks and switches to a random page. The PageRank value of a page reflects the chance that the random surfer will land on that page by clicking on a link. It can be understood as a Markov chain in which the states are pages, and the transitions, which are all equally probable, are the links between pages.
[40] Laura Granka discusses PageRank by describing how the pages are not simply ranked via popularity as they contain a reliability that gives them a trustworthy quality. This has led to a development of behavior that is directly linked to PageRank. PageRank is viewed as the definitive rank of products and businesses and thus, can manipulate thinking. The information that is available to individuals is what shapes thinking and ideology and PageRank is the device that displays this information. The results shown are the forum to which information is delivered to the public and these results have a societal impact as they will affect how a person thinks and acts.

In the example above (a SERP for the search query “lawnmowers”), all of the results on the SERP – with the exception of the map and business listing beneath it – are paid results. The three large text-based ads at the top of the SERP (considered prime positioning for advertisers) are typical PPC ads. Of those three ads, the lower two (for Craftsman.com and Husqvarna.com) both feature ad extensions allowing prospective customers to navigate to specific pages on their websites directly from the ads.
SEO – Search Engine Optimization is the practice of achieving a high rank in the SERPs without the use of paid ads. In other words, marketers create content that they think will rank well for a specific search term. Typically, they’ll also build a backlink profile to pass page rank from high authority sites to their own site in an effort to achieve a higher spot in the search results.
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Using keywords on the Display Network is called contextual targeting. These keywords match your ads to websites with the same themes. For instance, the Display keyword “shoes” will match to any website that Google deems is related to shoes. These keywords aren’t used as literally as Search keywords, and they’re all considered broad match. Keywords in an ad group act more like a theme. Display keywords can be used alone, or you can layer them with any other targeting method to decrease scope and increase quality.
To maximize success and achieve scale, automated bid management systems can be deployed. These systems can be used directly by the advertiser, though they are more commonly used by advertising agencies that offer PPC bid management as a service. These tools generally allow for bid management at scale, with thousands or even millions of PPC bids controlled by a highly automated system. The system generally sets each bid based on the goal that has been set for it, such as maximize profit, maximize traffic, get the very targeted customer at break even, and so forth. The system is usually tied into the advertiser's website and fed the results of each click, which then allows it to set bids. The effectiveness of these systems is directly related to the quality and quantity of the performance data that they have to work with — low-traffic ads can lead to a scarcity of data problem that renders many bid management tools useless at worst, or inefficient at best.